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rlang errors carry a backtrace that can be inspected by calling last_error(). You can also control the default display of the backtrace by setting the option rlang_backtrace_on_error to one of the following values:

  • "none" show nothing.

  • "reminder", the default in interactive sessions, displays a reminder that you can see the backtrace with last_error().

  • "branch" displays a simplified backtrace.

  • "full", the default in non-interactive sessions, displays the full tree.

rlang errors are normally thrown with abort(). If you promote base errors to rlang errors with global_entrace(), rlang_backtrace_on_error applies to all errors.

Promote base errors to rlang errors

You can use options(error = rlang::entrace) to promote base errors to rlang errors. This does two things:

  • It saves the base error as an rlang object so you can call last_error() to print the backtrace or inspect its data.

  • It prints the backtrace for the current error according to the rlang_backtrace_on_error option.

Warnings and errors in RMarkdown

The display of errors depends on whether they're expected (i.e. chunk option error = TRUE) or unexpected:

  • Expected errors are controlled by the global option "rlang_backtrace_on_error_report" (note the _report suffix). The default is "none" so that your expected errors don't include a reminder to run rlang::last_error(). Customise this option if you want to demonstrate what the error backtrace will look like.

    You can also use last_error() to display the trace like you would in your session, but it currently only works in the next chunk.

  • Unexpected errors are controlled by the global option "rlang_backtrace_on_error". The default is "branch" so you'll see a simplified backtrace in the knitr output to help you figure out what went wrong.

When knitr is running (as determined by the global option), the default top environment for backtraces is set to the chunk environment knitr::knit_global(). This ensures that the part of the call stack belonging to knitr does not end up in backtraces. If needed, you can override this by setting the rlang_trace_top_env global option.

Similarly to rlang_backtrace_on_error_report, you can set rlang_backtrace_on_warning_report inside RMarkdown documents to tweak the display of warnings. This is useful in conjunction with global_entrace(). Because of technical limitations, there is currently no corresponding rlang_backtrace_on_warning option for normal R sessions.

To get full entracing in an Rmd document, include this in a setup chunk before the first error or warning is signalled.

```{r setup}
options(rlang_backtrace_on_warning_report = "full")
options(rlang_backtrace_on_error_report = "full")

See also



# Display a simplified backtrace on error for both base and rlang
# errors:

# options(
#   rlang_backtrace_on_error = "branch",
#   error = rlang::entrace
# )
# stop("foo")